Dyspraxia: the causes

Dyspraxia is a neuro-developmental disorder, that is to say that it is partly explained by brain abnormalities. This observation does not explain the causes of the appearance of this disorder, whose assumptions remain multiple.

Among the evoked causes of dyspraxia are:

  • Prematurity
  • The absence of brain dominance (while there is usually a dominant brain)
  • A dysfunction of tactile perceptions
  • Prenatal, perinatal or neonatal difficulties (lack of oxygen in the fetus or newborn)
  • Difficulties of connection between the different brain regions involved in the gesture, or between the two hemispheres
  • A dysfunction of one of these brain areas: cortex, cerebellum, sub-cortex
  • A diffuse brain abnormality: cortical atrophy, dilation of the ventricles, demyelination (absence of myelin, substance that promotes the connection between neurons)
  • Oculomotor or neuro-visual disorders, that is to say the orientation of the gaze.

The following are not included in these causes: hearing or visual deficits per se (hearing loss or vision loss) and motor deficits.

The number of these hypotheses shows how complex the causes of dyspraxia are. Since different brain zones are involved in the application of a gesture, it is probably the connection between them that is disturbed. The cerebral pathway used for a dyspraxic gesture would not be a "highway" but an adventurous path. The gesture is as done for the first time, with attention focused on the gesture, to the detriment of other stimuli - such as posture, what the teacher says, spatial landmarks, etc. - who are neglected. Some psychological factors could thus favor a dypraxic child's difficulties: stress, perfectionism, attention deficit disorder (AD / HD), autistic disorders, etc.

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